Published April 1983
by Elsevier Science Publishing Company .
Written in English
|Contributions||Steve Prentis (Editor), Tim Hunt (Editor), John Tooze (Editor)|
|The Physical Object|
|Number of Pages||288|
Studies of retroviruses lead Dulbecco to argue that the flow of information is not unidirectional, but in fact RNA can be converted into DNA (some viral RNA genomes are converted into DNA proviruses integrated into the genome). Subsequently Temin and Baltimore discovered the enzyme that can make a DNA copy of RNA, i.e. reverse transcriptase. RNA polymerase unwinds that part of the DNA. The DNA is unzipped and the RNA polymerase runs along one strand of the DNA that carries the gene to be expressed (this is the template strand or the sense strand). RNA polymerase reads the DNA and makes the RNA copy called mRNA. The origins of “DNA makes RNA makes protein” may be older than the Central Dogma. Google Books informs me that in , Edwin Chargaff is recorded as saying “I don’t bother easily. I really don’t know. I seem to gather that the theory now is that DNA makes RNA and RNA makes protein. This book starts with a historic approach, showing how most scientist thought wrong about the roles of protein, DNA, and RNA during the first half of the 20th century. For me it was a lot better way to learn about a very complicated scientific topic than the standard, this is what we know now s:
DNA in the cell nucleus carries a genetic code, which consists of sequences of adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C) (Figure 1). RNA, which contains uracil (U) instead of thymine, carries the code to protein-making sites in the cell. To make RNA, DNA pairs its bases with those of the “free” nucleotides (Figure 2). DNA is a sequence of 4 different bases, A, T, G and C. Messenger RNA substitutes a U for the T when the copy is made, but you still have only 4 possible choices in your code. A, U, G and C Proteins are made from 20 main amino acid molecules. In areas of DNA where RNA binds to one of the DNA threads in such a way that the complementary DNA thread becomes the sole thread (R-loop structures), the DNA stability will change if RNA . DNA is housed within the nucleus, and protein synthesis takes place in the cytoplasm, thus there must be some sort of intermediate messenger that leaves the nucleus and manages protein synthesis. This intermediate messenger is messenger RNA (mRNA), a single-stranded nucleic acid that carries a copy of the genetic code for a single gene out of.
Microbial DNA in the cytosol induces production of interferon-β (IFN-β) and an innate immune response. Chiu et al. () now implicate cytosolic DNA-dependent RNA polymerase III as the DNA sensor linking DNA release by pathogenic bacteria and viruses in the host cell cytosol to IFN-β production and innate immunity. Because SARS-CoV-2 is an RNA virus, it needs an RNA-to-RNA polymerase, so the virus carries its own: the unassumingly named “non-structural protein 12”, or nsp Nsp12 is the RNA . DNA and proteins are key molecules of the cell nucleus. One gene makes one protein. A gene is made of DNA. Bacteria and viruses have DNA too. The DNA molecule is shaped like a twisted ladder. A half DNA ladder is a template for copying the whole. RNA is an intermediary between DNA and protein. DNA words are three letters long. Start studying BIOLOGY - DNA makes RNA make PROTEIN. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.